Polygamy is wide spread among different cultures of the world. According to one study out of '853' cultures only 16 percent stipulate monogamy. Historically most of the Sikh kings practiced polygamy in 18th and 19th centuary. The Guru Amar Dass ji has clearly defined that conjugal relationship has to be two bodies and one soul phenomenon. It vividly conforms to the monogamy idealism.
It appears very paradoxical and enigmatic to a student of Sikh history when one confronts the practice of polygamy by some Sikh Gurus. Historically the following Gurus had more than one wife.
1. Guru Arjan Dev.
2. Guru Hargobind
3. Guru Hari Rai
4. Guru Gobind Singh
Many causes about the practice of polygamy among the humans have been sited by eminent scholars...
Helen Fisher states that men seek polygamy to spread their genes while women join harems to acquire resources and ensure the survival of their young. Polygamy enables men to have more children. Most of the scientific evidence stacks up in favor of monogamy. Desmond Morris summarised the explanations by saying that the pair bonding is a trademark of humans.
But, even then the question arises, why Some Gurus did practice it?
Most of Sikh scholars never touch the subject probably due to the divinity and spirituality associated with Sikh Gurus.
Very few explanations have been given which can be summarised as such...
1. It was the Divine will.
2. One should not raise the issue as they were super humans and their life incidents are beyond the comprehension of commoners.
3. With improved economy of Guru Ghars, the Gurus could afford multiple marriages...
Spirituality, Awarness, Enlightment has nothing to do with polygamy, monogamy, hetrosexuality and homosextuality. This state of being is above and beyond all this.
Guru Amar Dass Ji thus said
bhu ByK kir BrmweIAY min ihrdY kptu kmwie ] (26-13, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
hir kw mhlu n pwveI mir ivstw mwih smwie ]1] (26-14, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
mn ry igRh hI mwih audwsu ] (26-14, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
scu sMjmu krxI so kry gurmuiK hoie prgwsu ]1] rhwau ] (26-15, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
gur kY sbid mnu jIiqAw giq mukiq GrY mih pwie ] (26-15, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
hir kw nwmu iDAweIAY sqsMgiq myil imlwie ]2] (26-16, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
jy lK iesqrIAw Bog krih nv KMf rwju kmwih ] (26-16, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
ibnu siqgur suKu n pwveI iPir iPir jonI pwih ]3] (26-17, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
hir hwru kMiT ijnI pihirAw gur crxI icqu lwie ] (26-18, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
iqnw ipCY iriD isiD iPrY Enw iqlu n qmwie ]4] (26-18, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
jo pRB BwvY so QIAY Avru n krxw jwie ] (26-19, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
jnu nwnku jIvY nwmu lY hir dyvhu shij suBwie ]5]2]35] (26-19, isrIrwgu, mhlw 3)
Guru Arjan Dev ji also said...
Awsw mhlw 5 ] (385-1)
pwvqu rlIAw jobin blIAw ] (385-1, Awsw, mhlw 5)
nwm ibnw mwtI sMig rlIAw ]1] (385-1, Awsw, mhlw 5)
kwn kuMflIAw bsqR EFlIAw ] (385-2, Awsw, mhlw 5)
syj suKlIAw min grblIAw ]1] rhwau ] (385-2, Awsw, mhlw 5)
qlY kuMcrIAw isir kink CqrIAw ] (385-3, Awsw, mhlw 5)
hir Bgiq ibnw ly Drin gflIAw ]2] (385-3, Awsw, mhlw 5)
rUp suMdrIAw Aink iesqrIAw ] (385-4, Awsw, mhlw 5)
hir rs ibnu siB suAwd iPkrIAw ]3] (385-4, Awsw, mhlw 5)
mwieAw ClIAw ibkwr ibKlIAw ] (385-4, Awsw, mhlw 5)
srix nwnk pRB purK dieAlIAw ]4]4]55] (385-5, Awsw, mhlw 5)