The Islamic months also called Lunar months are based on the sighting of the moon. The Islamic calendar began when Mohummed (pbuh) ordered his disciples to leave and save themselves from the atrocities committed by the Mekkans and emigrate to Madina called Yasrab at the time.
There are 12 months in a lunar year. These are:
11. DHU QA’DAH
12. DHU HIJJAH
Ramadan is the month in which the Quran was revealed with clear guidance and differentiation (Between Good and Bad) Whoever of you is a witness of this month, should fast.
But if anyone is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put you in any difficulties. 2:185
And eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appears to you distinct from it’s black thread; then complete your fast till the night appears. 2:187
Whoever fasts Ramadan with faith and seeking the pleasure of Allah, his past errors are forgiven. (Ahmed)
Islam is based on the five pillars, the oneness of Allah, establishing prayers, paying Zakat (Charity) fasting in Ramadan and pilgrimage to Makkah.
Fast when you see the new moon of Ramadan, and finish fasting when you see the new moon of Shawal, and if you cannot see the new moon then calculate thirty days of Shaban.
The month of Ramadan comes once each year giving every fasting Muslim a spiritual and physical improvement which lasts until the following year.
To be homeless without a place to live and to loose your family or the home you were born in or to loose your spouse or children is a terrible thought. Yet this is what many Muslim brothers and sisters face each winter. We see this happening daily on TV or in the newspapers. "Every little bit helps", whatever you donate this Ramadan, it will give someone a chance to live or hope for a better future.
This is a charity that must be paid at the end of Ramadan and only then is your fasts accepted.
This is a charitable tax which must be paid every year based upon your wealth. To do this during Ramadan is more rewarding.