THE DEVIL'S DECEPTION OF THE KHAARIJITES30
The first and worst of the Khawaarij was Thul-Khuwaisarah. The Sahaabee, Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree, said,"'Alee ibn Abee Taalib sent some gold ore wrapped in dyed leather31 from Yemen32 to Allaah's Messenger, and he divided it up between four people: Zaid al-Khail, al-Aqra' ibn Haabis, 'Uyainah ibn Hisn and 'Alqamah ibn 'Ulaathah.33 A person among the companions remarked that they had a better claim to the wealth than these people.34When this remark reached the Prophet (a), he said, "Will you not trust me whom the One above the heavens has trusted? Information comes to me from the heavens morning and evening." Then a man with sunken eyes, high cheekbones, a protruding forehead, thick beard and a shaven head stood up and said,"Muhammad! Fear Allaah". The Prophet(pbuh) turned to him and replied, "Woe be to you. Am I not the person who fears Allaah the most?" The man then walked away and Khaalid ibn al-Waleed jumped up and said "O Messenger of Allaah, shall I not cut off his head?" But the Prophet(pbuh) said, "Perhaps he observes prayer." Khaalid then said, "Perhaps one who observes prayers says with his tongue what is not in his heart." The Prophet(pbuh) replied, "I was not commanded to pierce the hearts of people or slit open their bellies." Then he glanced at the man who was walking away and said. "There will arise a people from among the progeny of this man who will recite the Qur'aan, but it will not go beyond their throats; they will pass through the religion as an arrow passes through its target."35
That man was called Thul-Khuwaisarah at-Tameemee and he is considered the first Khaarijite to arise in Islam. The root of his sickness was that he preferred his own opinion over that of the Prophet(pbuh). If he had waited to hear what the Prophet(pbuh) had to say, he would have realized that no opinion can be given precedence over that of Allaah's Messenger(pbuh). And, it was this individual's tribesmen who later rose in arms against Caliph 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib.36
When the struggle between Mu'aawiyah and 'Alee became drawn out,37 Mu'aawiyah's followers raised copies of the Qur'aan tied to the end of their spears and invited 'Alee's followers to arbitration based on it. They suggested that a man representing each side meet and come to a solution based on the Qur'aan. Both sides agreed to negotiate and Mu'aawiyah's followers sent 'Anir ibn al'Aas to represent them. When 'Alee's followers chose Abu Moosa to represent them, Alee expressed that he did not think him suitable and suggested Ibn 'Abbaas instead. However, his followers said that they did not want anyone from among 'Alee's relatives, and they sent Abu Moosaa.38
The arbitration was subsequently delayed till the month of Ramadaan. During this period, the very validity of men deciding something which lay in Allaah's jurisdiction, was questioned by one of 'Alee's followers by the name of 'Urwah ibn Uthainah39 who said, "Judgement belongs only to Allaah."
When 'Alee turned his army away from the plain of Siffeen and entered Kufah, about twelve thousand of his followers did not enter the city with him. Instead, they camped at the town of Harooraa40 and raised their voices in unison reciting the slogan, 'Judgement belongs only to Allaah!' This incident marks the first appearance of the Khawaarij as a sectarian movement. They subsequently appointed Shuaib41 ibn Rib'ee at-Tameemee as their Ameer for battle, and 'AbduLlaah ibn al-Kawwaa al-Yashkaree as their Ameer for Salaah. These Khawaarij were initially very pious and meticulous about the performance of the various acts of worship. However, their belief that they were more knowledgeable than the Prophet's companion, 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib, became the basis of a terrible sickness which afflicted them and led them astray.
'Abdullaah ibn 'Abbaas42 said, "When the Khawaarij broke away, about six thousand of them gathered at a man's estate and agreed to revolt against 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib. During the period of their meetings, a number of people came to 'Alee and informed him that the group was plotting against him. However, 'Alee told his followers not to attack his followers until they attacked him which they would surely do.
One day I came to 'Alee before the mid-day prayer (Salaah ath-thuhr) and said to him, 'O Ameer al-Mu'mineen,43 may the Salaah sooth you - please allow me to visit the rebels and speak to them. At first 'Alee replied that he feared for my person but he later allowed me to go when I assured him that I was known among them as a person of good character who would hurt no one. I then went and put on my best clothes of Yemenite cloth and my sandals and I went to visit them at mid-day.
When I entered their camp, I found a people whose devotion in prayer the like of which I had never seen. Their foreheads were scarred from continuous and prolonged prostrations, and their palms were calloused like the knees of camels. Their clothes were washed44 and their faces lined from staying awake all night. When I greeted them, they replied, 'Welcome Ibn 'Abbaas, what has brought you here?' I replied, "I have come from the Muhaajirs45, the Ansaars46, and the Prophet's son-in-law among whom the Qur'aan was revealed. They know its interpretation better than you do." Some of them refused to debate with me on the grounds that I was a Quraishite saying that Allaah, Most Great and Glorious, said, "Yes, they are an argumentative people.47 However, two or three of them suggested that I speak with them, so I said, "Tell me what you have against Allaah's Messenger's son-in-law, the Muhaajirs, and the Ansaars, among whom the Qur'aan was revealed? There is not a single one of them among you and they know the Qur' aan's interpretation better than you." They replied that there were three points which they had against 'Alee. When I asked them what they were, they said: "One was that 'Alee made men judges in Allaah's affair even though Allaah, Most Great and Glorious, has said, 'Judgement belongs only to Allaah.48 So what value are men and their decisions after Allaah's statement?" I said, "That is one point and what else?" They replied, "As for the second point, it is that he fought and killed his enemies, yet did not take any captives49 nor spoils of war. If it was because the enemy were believers, why was it permissible for us to fight and kill them and not make them captives?" I said, "What is the third point?" They replied, "He erased the title Ameer al-Mu mineen (Leader of the Believers)50 from himself." If he is not Ameer al-Mumineen then surely he must be Ameer al-Kaafireen (Leader of the disbelievers). I asked them if they had anything else besides these points, and they replied that these were sufficient. I then said to them, "As for your statement concerning men's judgement in Allaah's affair, I will recite for you from Allaah's book something which will refute your statement. But if I do so, will you retract your position?" When they replied that they would, I said, "Verily, Allaah has relegated to men an area of His judgement whose value is a mere four dirhams, the price of a rabbit, in the verse:
"O Believers, do not kill game in a state of Ihraam (pilgrim dress). If any of you does so intentionally, the compensation is the sacrifice of a domestic animal similar to it51 near the Ka'bah according to the judgement of two just men from among you52
Also, he relegated to men an area of his judgement concerning a woman and her husband in the verse:
If you fear discord between them, appoint a judge from his family and one from hers to arbitrate. If they wish reconciliation, Allah will make it happen between them. For Allaah is All-Knowing, whose expertise knows no bounds.53
I implore you, by Allaah! Is man's judgement to reconcile what is between themselves, and prevent the spilling of blood more excellent than man's judgement over a rabbit and a woman's (family obligations and rights) or not? Which of them is more important?" When they replied that the arbitration was, I asked them if they would retract their objection to 'Alee's agreement to arbitration and they agreed.
I said, "As for your statement concerning 'Alee's fighting without taking captives or spoils of war, it means that you would have taken your mother, 'Aa'ishah, may Allaah be pleased with her, as a captive.54 By Allaah, if you say that she is not your mother, you have left Islaam and, by Allaah, if you say that you would have made her a captive and made permissible what is permissible in the case of others (i.e. sex), you have left Islaam. You are caught between two grave errors for Allaah, the Most Great Glorious has said:
The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves and his wives are their mothers.55
I then asked them if they would retract their objection to 'AIee's refusal to take his defeated Muslim opponents as captives and they agreed.
Then I said, "As for your statement concerning his erasing the title "Ameer al-Mu 'niineen", I will give you a similar example concerning someone with whom you are pleased. On the day of Hudaybeeyah56 the Prophet(pbuh) made a treaty with the pagans represented by Abu Sufyaan ibn Harb and Suhail ibn 'Amr. He told 'Alee to put it in writing for them, so 'Alee wrote: These are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad, Messenger of Allaah. However, the pagans objected saying, "By Allaah, we do not know you to be a messenger of Allaah, for if we did know you to be so, we would not have fought you." The Prophet(pbuh) then said, "O Allaah, you know that I am a messenger of Allaah. Erase it, O 'Alee, and write: these are the terms of peace agreed upon by Muhammad ibn 'Abdillaah. By Allaah, surely Allaah's Messenger is better than 'Alee, and he erased a title from himself." Nearly two thousand of the Khawaarij retracted their positions and rejoined 'Alee's forces while the rest of them revolted and were killed."
The Sahaabee, Jundub al-Azdee, said, "When we marched with 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib against the Khawaarij and reached their encampment, to our surprise we heard a loud drone (like the drone of bees) produced by their recitation of the Qur'aan. It was aiso narrated that when 'Alee agreed to the arbitration, two Khaarijites by the names Zar'ah ibn al-Burj at-Taa'ee and Hurqoos ibn Zubair as-Sa'dee,57 came to visit him and said, "Judgement belongs only to Allaah." 'Alee replied, "Judgement belongs only to Allaah." So Hurqoos said to him, "Repent for your sin and retract your decision to accept human arbitration. Then lead us forth to fight against our enemies until we meet our Lord. If you do not give up human arbitration in the jurisdiction of Allaah's book, I will surely fight you for Allaah's pleasure." The Khaarijites had gathered in the estate of 'Abduilaah ibn Wahb ar-Raasee,58 who addressed them after thanking and praising Allaah, saying: "It is unbefitting for a people who believe in the Most Merciful (Allaah) and link themselves to the Qur'aan's judgement, that this life, whose love produces only distress, be held dearer than commanding the good, prohibiting evil, and speaking the truth; so join us in rebellion."59 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib wrote to them: Surely these two men60 whom we have accepted as judges have contradicted Allaah's book and followed their desires while we hold our original position. They wrote back to him: Surely you are not angry for your Lord's sake but only for your own . However, if you bear witness to your own disbelief and seek repentance, we will reconsider the disagreement between us, otherwise we will oppose you indiscriminately.
The Khaarijites came across Abdullah ibn Khabbaab61 during their march and asked him if he had heard any statements from his father of the Prophet(pbuh) which he could relate to them. He replied that he had and said, "I heard my father relate from Allaah's Messenger that he mentioned a time of dissension in which one who sits is better than one who stands, one who stands is better than one who walks and one who walks is better than one who runs. And, he said, "If you are alive at that time, be a slave of Allaah who is murdered (than among those who murder)." They then asked him if he really heard his father relate that from Allaah's Messenger and when he replied that he had. They took him to the edge of a river and chopped his head off and his blood flowed in a stream like the lace of a sandal. After that they turned to his pregnant wife, cut open her stomach and spilled its contents.62 Later, while they were camped in a date palm grove in Nahrawaan, a ripe date fell, and one of them picked it up and tossed it in his mouth. When another person told him he had no right to take it without paying for it, he immediately spat it out of his mouth. One of them sharpened his sword and began to wave it in the air and when the pig of a non-Muslim subject passed by, he slashed it with his sword to try it out. His companions told him that what he did was corrupt, so he found the owner of the pig and gave him a price agreeable to him.63
When 'Alee sent a dispatch to the Khaarijites to surrender 'Abdullah ibn Khabbaab's killer, they replied that they all killed him. The demand was repeated three times, and each time they repeated the same answer. 'Alee then told his followers to engage them in battle. During the fighting some of the Khaarijites would say to each other. 'Prepare to meet the Lord going to paradise.' However, they soon suffered a terrible defeat in which 'Abdullaah ibn Wahb and most of his followers were slain.64
Another group revolted against 'Alee in the following year, and an army was sent to crush the rebellion. However, during the period, 'Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Muljam and his companions met to mourn the loss of their compatriots at Nahrawaan and plan their revenge. They expressed that they could not be content to remain in this world after the passing of their brethren who were unconcerned with being blamed, or rebuked for what they did seeking Allaah's pleasure. It was decided that they would sell their souls to Allaah by seeking out those who they considered leaders of corruption; they would avenge the blood of their brethren, and release Muslims from their clutches.
Muhammad ibn Sa'd reported from his teachers that three Khaarijites, 'Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Muljam, al-Burak ibn 'Abdillaah and 'Amr ibn Bakr at-Tameemee, gathered in Makkah and pledged to kill 'Alee, Mu'aawiyah and 'Amr ibn al-'Aas respectively and not betray one another.65 Ibn Muljam went to Kufah and on the appointed night when 'Alee left his house to lead the early morning prayers (Salaah al-Fajr), he struck him a vicious blow on the forehead which penetrated to his brain.~66 'Alee cried out to the people not to let him escape and they caught him. When Umm Kulthoom67 screamed at him, 'Oh enemy of Allaah, you have killed the Ameer al-Mumineen wrongly, he replied, 'Cry then.' He then went on to say, 'I poisoned my sword, so if he survives me, I pray that Allaah banishes him and destroys him.' So when 'Alee died, Ibn Muljam was brought out to be executed and even though Abdullaah ibn Ja'far cut off both of his hands and feet, he did not cry out or speak. Next both of his eyes were pierced by red hot nails, but he still did not cry out. Instead he began to recite Soorah al-'Alaq: Read in the name of your Lord who created mankind from a leach-like clot and he finished it while blood flowed from his eye-sockets. However, when a section of his tongue was burned, he cried out and when asked why he did so at this point, he replied, 'I hate to die in this world with other than Allaah's remembrance on my tongue.' Looking at the skin on his forehead one could see brownness;the effects of constant prostration in prayer - may Allaah curse him.
When al-Hasan ibn 'Alee wanted to make a peace settlement with Mu 'aawiyah, a Khaanjite by the name of al-Jarraah ibn Sinaan revolted against him. Al-Jarraah said to him, 'You have committed shirk as your father did.' Then he stabbed him in his upper thigh.
The Khaarijites continued to rise in revolt against the Muslim state massacring innocent Muslim men, women, and children during both the Umayyad and 'Abbaasid dynasties.68
A variety of sects soon arose amongst them.69 For example, the followers of Naafi' Lbn al-Azraq considered themselves pagans as long as they were in a pagan land, but if they left it, they became Muslims. They also considered those who disagreed with their views and those who committed major sins as pagans, while those who did not join their forces during battle were considered as disbelievers. They made the killing of Muslim women and children allowable as they adjudged them pagans. However, one of the Azraqees, Najdah ibn 'Aamir ath-Thaqafee, diverged from some of Naafi's views and prohibited the spilling of Muslim blood or the taking of Muslim property. He also held that sinners among his followers would be punished in a place other than the hell-fire and that hell was reserved for those who disagreed with his sectarian views.
Some of the Khaarijite sects used to hold that anyone who consumed as little as two pennies70 of an orphan's wealth would go to hell, because Allaah, Most Great and Glorious has promised the fire for those who commit this error.71 Also among the beliefs of the Khaarijites is the opinion that the Imaamate (leadership of state) is not specific for anyone unless he is knowledgeable and pious, and anyone from the common people who has both these qualities can be the Imaam.72 From their opinion arose the views of the Mu'tazilah concerning judging good and evil by the intellect, and that justice is whatever the intellect judges to be just.73
The strange beliefs of the Khaarijite sects and the recorded accounts of their activities are numerous, and I do not feel that further elaboration is necessary considering the fact that the main intention of this chapter is a look at the tricks and strategies of Iblees; how he deceived those fools who showed their ignorance by their actions and their beliefs that 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib and those with him from among the Muhaajirs and the Ansars were in error while they were correct. They made permissible the spilling of the blood of children while forbidding the eating of a date without paying its price. They greatly exerted themselves in worship, staying up all night in prayer, and when his tongue was cut Ibn Muljam cried out because he would miss the opportunity to mention Allaah's name. Yet, they made permissible the murder of 'Alee ibn Abee Taalib, may Allaah enoble him, and unleashed their swords on the Muslims.
I am not surprised at their certainty about their knowledge nor their conviction that they were more knowledgeable than 'Alee, may Allaah be pleased with him, for Thul-Khuwaisarah had told the Prophet of Allaah(pbuh), 'Be just, for you have been unfair.' And, it was Iblees who led them to perpetrate these infamies; we seek refuge in Allaah from abandonment and defeat (at the hands of Iblees).
Muhammad ibn Ibraaheem reported that he heard Allaah's Messenger say, "There will arise a people among you who will regard your prayers, fasting and good deeds with contempt and scorn; they will recite the Qur' aan, but it will not go past their throats, and they will pass through the religion the way an arrow passes through its prey."74 'Abdullaah ibn Abee Awfaa75 reported that the Prophet of Allaah said, 'The Khaarijites will be the dogs of hell's inhabitants.'
30: Arabic: Khawaarij (Sing. Khaarijee - Seceder) this term refers to anyone who openly rebels against the authority of a rightful Muslim leader. (ash-Shahrastaanee, al-Milal wan-Nihal, (Beirut: Daar al-Ma'rifah, 2nd ed. 1975), vol. 1, P. 114).
36: During the reign of Caliph Abu Bakr (632-634), the Tameem tribe rallied behind the false prophetess, Sajaah, who arose among them, then joined forces with the false prophet, Musailamah, and rebelled against Islaam.
37: After the death of Caliph 'Uthmaan (reign 644-656), 'Alee was appointed as the fourth Caliph in Madeenah in June 656. In December of the same year, 'Alee's forces were inadvertently drawn into a clash with the forces of the companions, Talhah, az-Zubayr and the Prophet's wife, 'Aai'shah. Caliph 'Alee then made Kufah his capital and sent replacements for some of the provincial governors. The people of Syria rejected Sahl Ibn Haneef as replacement for Mu'aawiyah who was at that time demanding vengeance for the death of his cousin, 'Uthmaan, before giving an oath of allegiance to 'Alee. Mu'aawiyah did not consider 'Alee's appointment complete since the oath had not yet been given by some of the major Sahaabah like Usaamah ibn Zayd, Sa'd ibn Abee Waqqaas, Ibn 'Umar, Zayd ibn Thaabit, etc. (Ibn Katheer, al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah, (Beirut: Maktabah al-Ma'aarif Press 3rd. ed., 1974) vol.7,p.227). 'Alee on the other hand, felt that due to the prevailing confusion, the stability of the state had to be reestablished before 'Uthmaan's murderers could be apprehended. This difference of opinion led to the meeting of their forces on the plain of Siffeen, south of ar-Raqqah on the west bank of the Euphrates in July of 657. Skirmishes between the two sides dragged on for weeks in a half-hearted manner, for neither side was anxious to precipitate a full scale battle between Muslims. (History of the Arabs, pg. 179-180, ltmaam al-Wafaa, (Egypt: al-Maktabah at-Tajaareeyah al-Kubraa, 9th. ed., 1964) pg.211-2 by Muhammad al-Khadaree Bek)
42: Ibn Abbaas was a cousin of the Prophet(pbuh) and one of his major companions. The Prophet(pbuh) gave him the title "Turjumaan al-Qur'aan (the interpreter of the Qur'aan)" and his commentary of the Qur'aan is considered to be the most authoritative after that of the Prophet(pbuh) himself. Caliph 'Alee made him his Ameer over the city of Basrah (Taareekh al-Umam wal-Mulook, vol.5, p.224)
50: During the arbitration between 'Alee and Mu'aawiyah, Amr ibn al 'Aas told the scribe not to write the title "Ameer al-Mumineen" after 'Alee's name saying that he was not their Ameer. One of 'Alee's supporters, al-Ahnaf, insisted that the title be written, but 'Alee told the scribe to erase it.
51: For example if one killed a moose or water buffalo, he would have to sacrifice a cow in Makkah as compensation. If one killed a very small animal, then, according to 'Alee's opinion, rabbit could be sacrificed as atonement.
54: She was captured during the battle of the Camel (Dec. 656) and sent home to Madeenah with her brother Muhammad ibn Abee Bakr as escort, along with all those who fought on her side. (al-Bidaavah, vol,p.246).
56: Towards the end of the 6th year after Hijrah, the Prophet(pbuh) and many of his companions donned their Ihraams and headed for Makkah to make 'Umrah. At first the Quraysh vowed not to allow them to enter Makkah, but later they made a ten year truce and demanded the delayal of the Prophet's Umrah until the following year. (Abdus-Salaam Haaroon, Tahtheeb Seerah Ibn Hishaam, (Beirut: alMaktabah al-Amaweeyah, 1972), vol.2, pp.27-33). The truce was known as Sulh al-Hudaybeeyah (the Hudaybeeyah treaty) because it took place at the village of al-Hudaybeeyah on the outskirts of Makkah. (Muhaimnad ibn Manthoor, Lisaan al-Arab, (Beirut: Daar Saadir). vol.1, p.302.
61: His father, Khabbaab ibn al-Aratt, was a member of the Tameemee tribe who had been captured and sold as a slave in Makkah prior to the advent of Islaam. His mistress, a woman from the tribe of Khuzaam'ah, later freed him and he worked as a swordsmith. Khabbaab was among the first to accept Islaam and he was the first to openly declare his acceptance. He died in Kufah in the year 658 CE.
68: Under Caliph Mu'aawiyah's twenty years of administration (660-680), the agitation of the Khaarijites was prevented from seriously breaking out, but he did not succeed in extinguishing it any more than he succeeded in suppressing the feelings and aspirations of the Shee'ah. Several uprisings took place in Kufah and Basrah but were promptly put down. Most of them were in Basrah under the governors, Ziyaad ibn Abeeh and his son 'Ubaidullaah. These insurrections, of which the most formidable was that of Abu BilaaI Mirdaas ibn 'Ubaidah at-Tameemee, settled the tactics of the Khaarijites, whose raids from that period onwards took the from of guerilla warfare and owed their successes mainly to the legendary rapidity of their cavalry. It was only with the great civil war that broke out after the death of Yazeed the first, that the Khaarijite movement assumed serious dimensions and contributed more than anything else to render precarious 'Abdullaah ibn az-Zubayr's hold on the territory that he had at first been able to subdue between the years 683 and 692. Their leaders Abu Taaloot Najdah ibn 'Aamir, and Abu Fudail captured in succession Yamaamah, Hadramawt, Yaman, and the town of Iaif and were only destroyed after the intervention of al-Hajjaaj ibn Yousuf. (Encylopedia of Islam, p.247)
69: The most infamous of the sects were the Azaariqah, the Ibaadeeyah, and the Sufreeyah. Of these movements, the most dangerous to the unity of the Muslim Empire and the most terrible on account of its ferocity was without doubt that led by Naafi' ibn al-Azraq. The Azaariqah gained temporary control over Kirmaan, Faars, and other eastern provinces and constituted a permanent threat to the security of Basrah and the surrounding country. Only later in 699 did Caliph 'Abdul Malik's general, Hajjaaj ibn Yousuf finally overcome them and kill the last and most clever of the Azraqee leaders Qataree ibn-al-Fujaa-a. (Encylopedia of islam. p.24 7). The Ibaadeeyah took their name from 'Abdullaah ibn Ibaad al-Murree atTameemee, the most tolerant of the Khaarijite founders of sub-sects. The Khaarijites of the seventh century who originated in Basrah around Abu Bilaal Mirdaas represent the origin of both the Ibaadeeyah and the Hufreeyah.
After the death of Abu Bilaal, 'Abdullaah ibn lbaad became the leader of the moderates, since in the year 685, he parted from the Azaariqah. Ibn Ibaad and his followers remained in Basrah when the Azaariqh left the city in revolt against the Umayyads and maintained friendly relations with Umayyad Caliph 'Abdul Malik. The policy of Ibn lbaad was continued by his successor, Abu Shu'thaa Jaabir ibn Zaid al-Azdee, the chief scholar of the lbaadeeyah, who came from 'Umman. Abu Ubaidah, Muslim ibn Abee Kareemah at-Tameemee, the disciple and successor of Jaabir ibn Zaid was himself an eminent scholar who wrote a compilation of Hadeeths. He also maintained Ibn Ibaad's policy but after the death of Caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-Azeez, favourable conditions for the Ibaadeeyah came to an end as his followers leaned towards revolt. Ibaadite insurrection broke out in several Muslim countries. However, after Abu 'Ubaidah's death (during Mansoor's caliphate), the Ibaadite community of Basrah began to decline. In southern Arabia an Ibaadite revolt broke out in 747 which not only wrested Hadramaut and San'a from the Umayyad's but also spread to Makkah and Madeenah for a time. In the year 748 the Ibaadites were finally defeated near Wadi al-Quraa. Today the Ibaadieeyah is the religion of the main branches of the Ghaafiree and Hanaawee clans in 'Umaan. They are also to be found in Zanzibar, Persia. Algeria, and Libya. The Ibaadites did not consider non-Khaarijites disbelievers and they allowed marriage with non-Ibaadites. (Encyclopedia of islam, pp 143-4, Al-Milal vol. 1, pp.
After the death of Abu Bilaal, 'Abdullaah ibn lbaad became the leader of the moderates, since in the year 685, he parted from the Azaariqah. Ibn Ibaad and his followers remained in Basrah when the Azaariqh left the city in revolt against the Umayyads and maintained friendly relations with Umayyad Caliph 'Abdul Malik. The policy of Ibn lbaad was continued by his successor, Abu Shu'thaa Jaabir ibn Zaid al-Azdee, the chief scholar of the lbaadeeyah, who came from 'Umman. Abu Ubaidah, Muslim ibn Abee Kareemah at-Tameemee, the disciple and successor of Jaabir ibn Zaid was himself an eminent scholar who wrote a compilation of Hadeeths. He also maintained Ibn Ibaad's policy but after the death of Caliph 'Umar ibn 'Abdul-Azeez, favourable conditions for the Ibaadeeyah came to an end as his followers leaned towards revolt. Ibaadite insurrection broke out in several Muslim countries. However, after Abu 'Ubaidah's death (during Mansoor's caliphate), the Ibaadite community of Basrah began to decline. In southern Arabia an Ibaadite revolt broke out in 747 which not only wrested Hadramaut and San'a from the Umayyad's but also spread to Makkah and Madeenah for a time. In the year 748 the Ibaadites were finally defeated near Wadi al-Quraa. Today the Ibaadieeyah is the religion of the main branches of the Ghaafiree and Hanaawee clans in 'Umaan. They are also to be found in Zanzibar, Persia. Algeria, and Libya. The Ibaadites did not consider non-Khaarijites disbelievers and they allowed marriage with non-Ibaadites. (Encyclopedia of islam, pp 143-4, Al-Milal vol. 1, pp. 118-137.
75: His father's name was 'Alqamah ibn Khaalid al-Aslamee, and both he and his father were companions of the Prophet(pbuh). Hadeeths narrated by him can be found in all of the Six books and he was the last Sahaabee to die in Kufah (706CE). Taqreeb at-Ta htheeb. vol. p.402. no. 193.