'Understanding Ismailism' was first published in English from Canada in 1988. Due to demand, it was reprinted in U.S.A. and twice in Pakistan. Book's Urdu and Gujrati translations have also been published from Pakistan.
Section One


-- the Sacred Book for mankind.

   This Heavenly Book has been my Furqan - the Criterion, a standard 
of judgment.

    It has showed me the right path as my Guide (Imam) and Light (Noor), the same way it guided, 1400 years ago, the pagan Arabs to distinguish  and discriminate between good and evil to rid them of their age long superstitions, idolatry and various customs of the "age of ignorance".

    I have quoted verses from this final scripture - the Quran, with intent and prayers that thhese few out of over 6200 verses, may be a Guide 
and a Warner to the readers.

     "Say: Lo! my Lord hurleth the Truth. 
    (He is) the knower of things hidden."     Holy Quran 34/48

   Faith blooms with understanding. The expansion of understanding makes for an expansion of trust, and reading widens the horizons of understanding. If one was to step into a public library and scan a computer listing, or go through a catalog under the heading Islam, he would discover enough titles to expand his understanding of Islamic history and Islam. But, if he was to search under the heading Ismailism or Ismailis, he would hardly come across a book written by an Ismaili author or published by an Ismaili institution that would open a door and invite him to examine the Tariqah (practices) or the history of Ismailism, from inside out.

   Recently I came across two publications written in English, by Al-Waiz Abualy A. Aziz. Both of these books -- Ismaili Tariqah and
A Brief History of Ismailism -- were published in Canada in 1985.

    Al-Waiz Abualy is the senior most Al-Waiz (missionary) who has devoted his entire life propagating the Ismaili Tariqah (Ismailism) for and on behalf of the Aga Khan's international institution for the propagation of faith and publication of religious literature. This institution is called "The Shia Imami Ismaili Tariqah and Religious Education Board." Al-Waiz Abualy is also the author of over a dozen books on the subjects of Ismaili faith and its history His favorite subjects are the esoteric aspects of Ismaili beliefs and the history of Ismaili Imams (Leaders) and Ismaili Pirs (Teachers - Dais),

    I have known Abualy since the early forties when I joined the "Recreation Club" in Bombay India as a student missionary. Later the "Club" changed its name to "Ismailia Association", and under the new Constitution promulgated recently by Karim Aga Khan, the Association is now known as 'The Shia Imami Ismaili and Religious Education Board". In effect, the so called "Club" has come out of its disguise. During the days when I joined the Recreation Club as a mission student, Abualy was one of the youngest teachers to our group. I did not end up as a missionary propagating the Ismaili doctrines but I continued my research and studies.

Treat my Jamat psychologically

   During the last forty years of my close association with the Ismaili community as an active member of the Jamat (Community), I have studied the principles, practices and teachings of the Ismaili Tariqah from close quarters. As a past President of an Ismailia Council I had the opportunity to observe the norms of leadership as well as conduction of Leadership Conventions and Conferences at all levels. One piece of advice that I received personally from the top authority was to treat my Jamat psychologically. I have watched Jamati leaders do exactly this. When the request was for desperately needed financial assistance, the Jamat was treated with the psychologically developed by the famous Viennes physician Sigmund Freud. I have observed Ismaili preachers who would feed the congregation with pep talks for days, when what was required were actual facts on the fundamental and basic issues This practice has been so common that a lot of the younger generation and middle aged adults walk out of the Jamatkhanas (prayer houses), before the preachers reach the pulpit

   Experienced missionaries who have been in the business of preaching and teaching for a long time have learned that the audience that remains behind to hear the sermon is composed mainly of Bhagats (genuine devotees), who are used to hearing pep talks and not the Truth. They have to keep on harping the same tune that the Ismaili Pirs have recited in their devotional songs Ginans. (To read one such Ginan please click  HERE). The moment they step outside of this well trodden path they will be disqualified by the Jamat and reprimanded by the Board. I can never forget one such typical example that I had the misfortune of witnessing in one of the Jamatkhanas in Burnaby, Canada.

Human Compositions and Divine Revelations

   A husband and wife team of young missionaries was officially invited by the Ismailia Association from The Islamic Republic of Pakistan to give a series of lectures on Islam and Ismailism. The subject for that night's sermon, suggested by the Ismailia Association was 'Comparison of the Ginanic verses with the Quranic verses'. Ginans are very near and dear to Ismailis because they were composed by Ismaili Pirs who had converted their forefathers. Ismailis recite these Ginans each and every day in their Jamatkhanas throughout the world. Professionally recorded Ginans are sold for home listening.

   The husband of the team began his lecture by pointing out an Islamic point of view: The word comparison in the title of his sermon was inappropriate. The Quran is a Divine Revelation revealed by Allah Himself whereas Ginans were composed by men and women. No Muslim can ever think of comparing a human composition with the 
most Sublime, Unparalleled Supreme composition. What he said was Pure Truth. It is said that only a lion's cub can digest the milk of a lioness. A large section of the congregation, male and female, walked out in silent protest. The young missionary coming from an Islamic State could not believe his eyes nor could he control his frustration and anger. He discontinued his sermon and left the pulpit. After much persuasion from the Executive Officers of the Jamat and the Association, the team resumed their lecture. They made a request that those who did not hold similar views should leave and let others hear the rest of their sermon. Practically, half the Jamat left the Jamatkhana. Some were not interested in the teachings of the Quran. Others could not bear to hear the undisputed facts about the Ginans.

    This attitude stands true also for the published literature. The majority of these people have never even opened the Book of Islamic scripture - the Quran - even though they call themselves Muslims. Ismailis would not touch any literature that disagrees with the Ginanic teachings of their Pirs and Farmans (Commands) of their Imams. One of the Farmans of Aga Khan III made during his first trip of Zanzibar Africa tells Ismailis not to read books other than that written by Pir Sadruddin, which are known as Ginans.

   I have spent most of my life as a devout Ismaili having studied as well as practiced, both the esoteric and exoteric form of Ismaili Tariqah; paying 12 1/2 % of my gross income before taxes and expenses, as Dasond (Zakat) in Jamatkhana. In 1976, I went for the change of 'key-word' for meditation called Isme-Azam (great name). After 30 years of esoteric Zikr-Ibadah (meditation), I was given a Naksh (key-calligraphy) and told this was the highest stage of Baitul Khayal Bandgi, I was asked not to come back for any higher grade or classes because there is none higher

Are you not afraid?

   Today, as a devout Muslim, I look back at all that I have been taught, practiced and propagated. In Canada I have had the opportunity of reading books of all religions. I came across articles and papers on Ismailism and Islam written by various authors. I compared what I had learned and what I was learning. I tried to understand Ismailism. In the process I started asking questions to individuals, missionaries, local Ismaili leaders, top ranking international leaders and even to the Imam by direct letters, as well as by memorandums through official channels, as prescribed in the Constitution ... I got no response.

   One Day, an international head of the Ismailia Association came to see me at my place of business. He happens to be a friend of mine for a couple of decades. He asked me a question: "Akbar Bhai, are you not afraid that Mawla Bapa (Aga Khan) may get displeased with you?". I replied, "Why should I be afraid, all I'm doing is asking questions to understand the religion? Is not Mawla Bapa a Guide (an Imam)?"

    "How should I fear that which ye set up beside Him, 
    when ye fear not to set up beside Allah that for which 
    He hath revealed unto you no warrant? 
    Which of the two factions hath more right to safety? 
    (answer me that) if ye have knowledge".   Holy Quran 6/82
(The translation, including the words within the brackets, are by M. M. Pickthall. In Yusuf Ali’s translation the verse number is 81).

Unique Tariqah

  In the book ‘Ismaili Tariqah’, Al-Waiz Abualy A. Aziz - one of the senior missionaries of the Ismaili faith writes on Page 132:

    "Ismaili Tariqah is unique. It has a 
    direct link with Ali and Nabi"
  The Ismaili sect is a minority sect of the Shia Tariqah of Islam. Nearly one million followers of Aga Khan call themselves "The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims." The reported figure of 15 million followers of Aga Khan is a gross exaggeration based upon conjecture. The Islamic Ummah (Universal Brotherhood of Muslims) is a fraternity of nearly one billion Muslims.  Sunni Muslims, the majority group in Islam, comprise 90% of the Ummah. Shiatu-Ali (Party of Ali), popularly known as the Shia Muslims, is the minority group in Islam. It comprises only 9% of the Muslim brotherhood.

The only Tariqah acceptable by Allah!

   The fact that the Ismaili Tariqah is the only Tariqah that will be acceptable to Allah on the Day of Judgment; all other sects of Islam be rejected by Allah, is a popular belief and a deep rooted impression upon Ismaili minds. To substantiate their claim, Ismailis often quote a Hadith, the reported saying of Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) which says that after the Prophet Muhammad’s passing away Islam will be divided into 73 sects. Of these 73 sects, only one will be on the right path and acceptable on the day of Judgment and the rest will be rejected or worthy of damnation. The obvious question is why is it the Ismaili Tariqah, followed by 1 million out of 1,000 million Muslims, will be the only one acceptable from the 73 Tariqahs?

  According to Ismaili teachings and preaching, the Ismaili Tariqah is at the top most level of the esoteric vision called Batiniyat or Marifat. The rest of the Islamic Tariqahs are on the levels of either Shariyat, Tariqat, or Haqiqat. For example, a Muslim who is on the level of ’Shariyat’ would perform an ablution (Wadu) of his physical body before reciting his Salat or Namaz (Ritual Prayers). Whereas, an Ismaili who believes himself to be a Marfati Momin, possesses an esoteric vision and knowledge which guides him to comprehend that it is the Spiritual Soul that needs the cleansing, and not the Physical Body Hence, an Ismaili does not perform ablution of his physical body like the rest of the Muslims, before reciting his Dua (Ritual Prayers for Ismailis). Ismailis call themselves Batini and qualify themselves as Momins. The logic and the argument that is applied with regard to the performance of physical ablution versus spiritual ablution is also applied by Ismailis to physical fasting (Saum) Pilgrimage (Hajj) etc.

Abualy writes on page 54 of ‘Ismaili Tariqah'

    "They (Ismailis) attach more importance to the object
    than to the subject of a matter. Spiritual matters are given preference over material things, yet worldly duties and 
    progress are not neglected".
    Ismaili Tariqah is not only an esoteric Tariqah, but it is also a Noorani Tariqah. Ismailis look upon the 'Noor (Light) of Allah' as having been manifested upon this earth in the body of an Imam (Spiritual Leader). For example, a Muslim is one who submits himself entirely to the Will of Allah; an lsmaili 'Momin' is one who submits himself entirely to the Will of Karim Aga Khan who possesses the 'Noor of Allah' within his physical body When an Ismaili prostrates before his Hazar (present) Imam, he prostrates to the 'Noor of  Allah' and not to the physical body of the Aga Khan. The same logic and argument holds good for him when he prostrates before the photograph of the Aga Khan in his Jamatkhana while reciting his Dua, seeking forgiveness for his sins or when soliciting help and mercy

   However, there is one fundamental exception to the overall concept of the pre-eminence of the spiritual over the physical in this philosophy: Karim Aga Khan's claim for being the 49th bearer and possessor of the 'Noor of Allah' has to be based upon his being a hereditary physical lineal descendant of Hazrat Ali (r.a.), the son-in-law and cousin of the Holy Prophet (s.a.s). Succession to the Imamat in future will be from amongst his physical male descendants only There can be no exception to this rule, according to the Ismaili Constitution. (up-dated, and inaugurated in December 1986).

  Going back to the original topic of this chapter, viz.: 
     "Ismaili Tariqah is unique. It has a direct link with Ali and Nabi."

   We have examined the kind of link Ismaili Momins have developed with Hazrat Ali ibn Abu Talib and his successor, the Aga Khan, but we have yet to examine the link that Ismailis have developed with Nabi, Prophet Muhammad.

Imamat over Naboowat

I quote a paragraph from page 119 of Ismaili Tariqah:

    "Many biographers of the Holy Prophet have reported that the Prophet had the mark of the Seal of Prophet hood on his back near the right shoulder. It was a mole, as big as a half an egg of a pigeon. When the Holy Imam stepped on the shoulders of the Holy Prophet, the Seal was under his foot. Lovers of Ali have interpreted this event as a sign of the importance of 
    Imamat over Naboowat".
Note: This unique quotation needs no comment.

   According to Ismaili belief Panjtan Pak (i.e. Hazrat All, Prophet Muhammad, Bibi Fatima, Hassan and Hussein) had in them the ‘Noor of Allah’. This would mean that Nabi Muhammad also possessed the ‘Noor of Allah’, but... But, what? An Ismaili would say that it was not of the same power as Ali’s. Nabi - the Prophet, did not have the same authority as All, the Imam. Does that mean the ‘Noor Of  Allah’ has different grades? Al-Waiz Abualy the author of  ‘Ismaili Tariqah’, explains this in more specific terms, on page 129 of his book: 

    "Nabi came to show the Truth 
    Ali is the possessor of the Truth". 

    "Nabi is the Receiver of the Quran, 
    Ali the speaking Quran". 

In other words, 

a) Imam’s Farmans (Commands) are The Truth. 
b)  Imam’s word is the Quran. 

   On a dose study of Ismaili rites, rituals and religious practices, one can easily say that Quranic laws have been overshadowed, and in some cases set aside, by the Farmans of Imams. We shall observe this in the later chapters. 

Unfettered power and authority 

   On the 13th day of December, 1986 a revised Constitution for The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims was ordained under the Sign Manual and Seal of Mawlana Hazar Imam Shah Karim al Hussaini His Highness Prince Aga Khan the 49th Imam of the Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims, at Merimont, Geneva, Switzerland. The very first article of the said Constitution is the ‘Power and Authority of Mawlana Hazar Imam: The first clause of the said article reads: 

    1.1  Mawlana Hazar Imam has inherent right and absolute and unfettered power and authority over and in respect of
    all religious and Jamati matters of the Ismailis. 
   An Ismaili Momin who has taken an oath of allegiance (Baiyat) to his or her Hazar Imam has committed himself or herself to abide by this Constitution and obey the Aga Khan’s authority as the Supreme Authority over and in respect of all religious and Jamati matters. 

   A Muslim who has not joined this Unique 73rd and has not committed himself or herself to this Unique Bondage, submits himself or herself to the one and only Supreme Constitution, revealed through their beloved Nabi Prophet Muhammad, by Allah Himself the Creator and Sustainer of the Worlds. This Constitution is the Holy Quran and it says: 

    "Say: For me, I have an obvious sign from my Lord, 
    but ye reject it. What ye would see hastened is not in my power. The Command (authority to command) rests with none but Allah: He declares the Truth, and He is the best of Judges."
                                             Holy Quran 6/57 
Unique Fabrication 

  Most Ismailis have not read the Quran. To this day they have not paid the respect due to the Revelations of Allah. Nor have they realized the significance and importance of this Divine Message. Hence, the seriousness of fabricating Quranic verses, and its consequences, may not be fully comprehended by an Ismaili Momin. The enormity is far more serious when the intention behind the fabrication is deliberate and is to propagate falsehood, in the name Of  Allah. 

Imam is immaculate and sinless 

   Al-Waiz Abualy has studied the Quran and has also written a chapter on The Holy Quran in his book ‘Ismaili Tariqah’. He has quoted the Quranic verse 33/33, in fragment, on page 124 of this book. The fragmentation is done with a purpose. The fragmented translation reads:

    "He (Imam) is the Noor of  Allah, therefore, 
    he is immaculate and sinless." 
  Reproduced below is the complete text of verses 
32 and 33 of chapter 33:
    "O ye wives of the Prophet! Ye are not like any other women. 
    If ye keep your duty (to Allah) then be not soft of speech, 
    lest he in whose heart is a disease aspire (to you) but utter customary speech. And stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the time of ignorance. 
    Be regular in prayer and pay the poor-due, and obey Allah and His Messenger. Allah's wish is but to remove uncleanness far from you, O folk of the household, and cleanse you with a thorough cleansing.
The verse 33/33 is addressed to "O ye wives of the prophet" or 
to "O folk of the household". It is neither addressed to, nor revealed with respect to, ‘He" or "Imam". In the entire Arabic text of these two verses there is no mention of "Noor of Allah". In the entire Quran there is no mention of "He (Imam) is Noor of Allah" or Ali is Noor of Allah or Ali is sinless.

  On the other hand "Book of Law revealed to Moses", "Gospel sent to Jesus - the son of Mary" and "The Scripture in Truth, revealed upon Muhammad", are designated as "Noor" and "guidance". See chapter 5 verses 47 to 51 (in Yusuf Ali’s translation) and verses 44 to 48 (in Pickthall’s translation).

  As for being "immaculate and sinless", the Prophet never ever claimed to be so during his lifetime. How then can a member of the household or a relative of the Prophet claim to be immaculate and sinless by virtue of being a near or distant relative of the Prophet? History shows that Prophet Muhammad and Hazrat Ali both sought forgiveness of their sins from Allah, five times a day or more, until the last days and hours of their existence upon this earth.

  Manifestation of 'Noor of Allah' in a human body which is immaculate and sinless - Fact, Fallacy Fiction or deliberate Fabrication?

As for those who Fabricate, Allah says:

    "Therefore woe be unto those who write the Scripture with their hands and then say ‘This is from Allah that they may purchase a small gain therewith! Woe unto them for that their hands have written, and woe unto them for that they earn thereby"
                   Holy Quran 2/79
Unique Prevarication

Ali is the Wise

    On page 128 of 'Ismaili Tariqah’ appears an English translation of the Quranic verse 4 of chapter 43. I have gone through various English, Urdu and Gujarati translations of the Quran and I have yet to find a single translation that would come dose to the one the author has published in his book. His Unique Translation reads:

    "Indeed, to Us, Ali is the Wise as stated in the Mother-book"
Below is the translation of the same verse done 
by Abdullah Yusuf Ali:
    "And Verily it is in the Mother of the Book, in Our presence,
    high (in dignity), full of wisdom."
  Going through the Arabic text, it appears that the author Abualy has translated the words "Aliyyun Hakiim" as "ALI IS THE WISE".

In the language of the Quran (Arabic):

Al-‘Aliyyu means The Exalted or Most High. 
Al-Azizu means The Mighty or Supreme. 
Al-‘Aziimu means The Grand or Tremendous.

These are adjectives, as well as the attributes of Allah. At the same time, Ali, Aziz and Azim are proper names for individuals. The author has substituted one adjective with a proper name and manipulated the entire translation. If his translation mode was to be applied to the Quran, then the entire Quran would read differently e.g. Azizun Hakim would read "Mr. Aziz is Wise". In the celebrated ‘Verse of the throne’ - - Ayat-ul Kursi i.e. chapter 2 verse 255 - the last line which reads 
"He (Allah) is the Exalted, the Grand" could be translated by a dishonest or unscrupulous translator in the following different ways:

    a)  "Exalted Azim is He (Allah)" 
    b) "Grand Ali is He (Allah)". 
    c) "Ali, Azim (both) are He (Allah)".
Similarly the popular Takbeer "Allah-O-Akbar" meaning "Allah is Great" could be deceitfully and dishonorably translated by a Prevaricating Translator as:
    ‘Allah is Akbar" or "Akbar is Allah" 
    (May Allah forgive us for reading these blasphemies).
    Allah has given every individual the wisdom to distinguish the truth from falsehood. A missionary's duty is to propagate what he is expected or asked by his superiors or masters to propagate.

  A reader's duty is to verify the facts with original sources or roots, and then decide what to believe and what not to believe. There is always among us a section who would distort the Scripture and Allah says:

    "There is among them a section who distort the Book with their tongues: (as they read) you would think it is a part of the Book, but it is no part of the Book; and they say, "That is from Allah. But it is not from Allah: It is they who tell a lie against Allah, and well) they know it!"               Holy Quran 3/78
Unique Appointment

  "A Brief History of Ismailism" is written and published by Al-Waiz Abualy A. Aziz. It is a "highly recommended" High School text book. This recommendation has been made by the Aga Khan’s officially recognized and constitutionally authorized institution for religious education and propagation of Ismaili faith, viz., ‘The Shia Imami Ismaili Tariqah and Religious Education Board’ (formerly "Ismailia Association").

Did Allah appoint Ali?

On page 107 of the said book, Missionary Abualy teaches and propagates the following:

    "The Imam is the Supreme Authority 
    appointed directly by Allah".
The question is, did Allah appoint any individual as "The Supreme Authority?" If so, how when and where? The response that one can find to these questions appears in Abualy’s other book, 'Ismaili Tariqah'.

  Under the heading Proclamation of Imamat, the author writes on page 120:

    "It was Sunday the 18th Zil-Hijja (15th of March, 632). The Holy Prophet delivered a long sermon and at the end informed them (the people who had returned from the pilgrimage) that this was perhaps his last hajj. He declared: "I am leaving behind me the two most important things for you: The Book of Allah and my Ahl-Bait (Progeny). The two will never depart from each other. 
    If you will follow them you will never go astray". He then called Ali near him and introduced him to the people, saying:
    "For those who consider me as their Mowla (Master),
    Ali too is their Mowla".
Although the "introduction" designates Ali as Mowla, the Ismailis claim it was not a simple "introduction" but a very important Proclamation made by the Prophet and that Ali was declared Imam.

If it is to be professed that "Mowla" is equal to "Imam", then these two points must be considered in consequence:

    a) Taking the wording of the "Proclamation" as claimed, one has to admit that the Prophet was already "Mowla" (i.e. Imam) when he proclaimed Ali too as "Mowla" (i.e. Imam). Hence, Prophet Muhammad would be the First Imam and Hazrat Ali the Second Imam. Also, both were "Imams" simultaneously. To say that Ali was ‘Imam" and Muhammad was not, would be incorrect.

    b) If what the author claims to have transpired after the final Hajj, did in reality happen (which the majority of Muslims refuse to accept), then the said Proclamation or Appointment of Imamat was done by the Prophet of Allah and not "directly by Allah".

  To justify his claim, the author adds at the end of the paragraph the following:
    "Finally he (Prophet) told the congregation: ‘I have delivered you the message that Allah had commanded me to do so."
This leads one to enquire:

   If the "introduction" or the "Proclamation", which was made before the returning pilgrims, was a Command or a Message from Allah, then the text of that Command would have been revealed to the Prophet as a Wahi meaning a "Revelation" from Allah. By virtue of being a ‘Revelation’, the text becomes a part of the ‘Book of Revelations’ - the Quran. How come this Proclamation/Command has not been included in the Quran when all Messages and Commands, major as well as minor, are included?

   As shown in the previous chapters, distortion of the Quranic Message has been a common practice. It has been so frequent and yet uncontested because in the past, the majority of Ismailis had not taken the trouble to read the Quran. Today more and more Ismailis have
started reading the Quran, especially after learning of the distortions being propagated and preached as Ismailism. Here is one more instance of the misrepresentation being propagated by those entrusted with the duty of faithfully spreading knowledge of Ismailism, Islam and Islamic scriptures to the Jamat:

   Under the same heading - "Proclamation of Imamat"- the author writes on Page 120 of 'Ismaili Tariqah': "Holy Prophet was returning from his (final) Hajj ceremonies; there were about 120,000 pilgrims with him. When he arrived at a road junction known as Ghadir-e-Khom he received the following Revelation:

    ‘O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou will not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. 
    Lo! Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk".
One will find that the above quoted verse appears in Chapter 5 and verse number 67 in Pickthall’s translation or verse number 70 in Yusuf Ali’s translation. If one is to read the two verses preceding and one verse following the above quoted Revelation, one will see that the above Revelation was revealed to the Prophet in connection with a "Message" that was to be delivered to the "People of the Books" i.e.. the Jews and the Christians. Even the text of the "Message" to be delivered appears in the next verse. The text begins with:
    "Say: O People of the Books! Ye have ......"
It is an undisputed fact that Jews and Christians were not the fellow travelers of the Prophet Muhammad on his return from the final Hajj. That makes it obvious that the said Revelation was not revealed at  Ghadir-e-Khom nor was it revealed in connection with the Proclamation of the "Imamat" or Introduction of "The Supreme Authority." Now comes the important question - What is the historical version in connection with the affair of Ghadir-e-Khom? The New Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume II, gives a detailed account of the episode as well as the historical version. The author and compiler of the Encyclopedia is
L. Veccia Vaglieri. He has no axe to grind. He writes:
    "On this point, Ibn Kathir shows himself yet again to be percipient historian: he connects the affair of Ghadir-e-Khumm with episodes which took place during the expedition to the Yemen, which was led by Ali in 10/631-2, and which had returned to Mecca just in time to meet the Prophet there during his farewell Pilgrimage. Ali had been very strict in the sharing out of the booty and his behavior has aroused protests; doubts were cast on his rectitude, he was reproached with avarice and accused of misuse of authority. Thus it is quite possible that, in order to put an end to all these accusations, Muhammad wished to demonstrate publicly his esteem and love for Ali. Ibn Kathir must have arrived at the same conclusion, for he does not forget to add that the Prophet's words put an end to the murmuring against Ali."
In the Bibliography Mr. Vaglieri writes:
    "According to Ibn Kathir, Muhammad’s discourse is reported also by al_Nasa'i in his Sunan and in his book on the khasais of Ali, by Ibn Maja, Abu Dawud and al-Tirmidhi." On Ali's behavior during the expedition: to the Yemen: Ibn Hisham 947 f.; Wakidi-Wellhausen, 418; Turabi, i, 1752 f.; Ibn al-Athir, Usd, 27f.; Caetani, Annali, 10 A.H., s17 17 (p. 322)."
   After reading the above mentioned historical version of the affair of Ghadir-e-Khom and after knowing that the version has support from other authors and historians, one can form an informed unbiased opinion.

   However, there would be some readers who would like to believe, in spite of all the unanswered questions and lack of evidence, that Ali was appointed as The Supreme Authority by Allah's Command at Ghadir-e-Khom. Their false would prevent them from believing otherwise. It is said: "Vanity dies hard, in some obstinate cases it outlives the man." To these self-conceited believers there is one final question. How and from where do you get the knowledge that Ali was also given the power and prerogative or redelegating "The Supreme Authority" to anyone of his male issue? A King's son can be the next King but can a Prime Minister's son inherit the Premiership by the virtue of being a male descendant? Can an entrusted (appointed) authority be bequeathed, generation after generation, like the personal wealth? If you have no knowledge or specific information on the subject of relegation of Authority then what should you do? Allah says:

    '(O man), follow not that whereof thou hast no knowledge. Lo! the hearing and the sight and heart - of each of these (who follow) it will be asked (on the Day of Reckoning)".    Holy Quran 17/36
  However, if they choose to follow their own vanities and self esteem after being made aware that the evidence and arguments for what they have been claiming ar unfavorable, their false pride will lead them to an unfavorable end. Allah says:
    "Say, 'Enough is Allah for a witness between me and you. He knows what is in the heaven and on earth. And it is those who believe in vanities and reject Allah, that will perish (in the end),"
                            Holy Quran 29/52
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